Truth of a Hopi by Edmund Nequatewa
CHAPTER TAIL-PIECES. These little drawings represent the clan symbols of the various groups of clans mentioned in this book There are also several petroglyphic drawings introduced.
The symbols found at the end of each chapter can be identified as follows:
THE TRUTH OF A HOPI:
Chapter I The Migration (petroglyph).
Chapter II. Masauwu Clan symbol.
Chapter III. People and birds (petroglyphs).
Chapter IV. The Bear, Strap, Bluebird, Spider, Gopher, and Greasy Eye Cavities of the Skull clans.
Chapter V. Bear and Strap clans
Chapter VI. Crow or Kachina clans
Chapter VII. Bear Clan.
Chapter VIII. Crow Clan
Chapter IX. Crane Clan.
Chapter X. Hopi star and rainbow symbol. (Appears on p. 120.)
Chapter XI. The Tobacco, Cloud or Water, Badger, Rabbit and Coyote clans.
Chapter XII. Crane and Bear Clans.
Chapter XIII. Bear and Masauwu Clans.
HOW CROW CLAN BECAME KACHINA CLAN:
Crow or Kachina Clan symbols.
1. First Class, Mong-cinum--Leaders of kivas, priests and High Priests.
Middle Class, Pavun-cinum--Hold no office but belong to societies and take part in ceremonies.
Low Class, Sukavung-cinum--Do not belong to any societies nor take part in ceremonies.
These classes refer only to the men. When a woman marries, she is classed with her husband. E.N.
2. If a Hopi woman wishes to terminate her marriage she places the personal belongings of her husband outside the door of their home. The house and all the household equipment are the property of the Hopi wife. Ed.
3. Four is the sacred number of the Hopi. Ed.
4. The smoking of tobacco among the Hopi, as among many other Indian tribes, is strictly ceremonial. The sacred smoke carries the prayers of the Hopi to their Gods.
The Hopi are known to use three varieties of native tobacco in their ceremonies. There are several other plants which they sometimes substitute, when unable to procure tobacco. Ed.
5. There are many kinds of pahos, or prayer offerings-as many as there are prayers, and there are prayers for every occasion in life and death. They are reverently fashioned of various types of feathers, carved and painted sticks and hand-spun cotton yarn. Up to very recent times, the Hopi grew a special type of cotton, which is named for them, Gossypium Hopi. Their paints are derived from native plants, earths and minerals. Ed.
6. In the telling of this story, the Hopi have in mind today the following birds, which have been identified by L. L Hargrave, as follows:
6a--Mocking bird--Western Mocking Bird, Mimus polyglottos leucopterus.
6b--Canary bird--Yellow Warbler, Dendroica aestiva.
6c--Eagle Golden Eagle, Aquila chrysaetos canadensis.
6d--Hawk--Cooper's Hawk, Accipiter cooperi.
6e--Swallow--White Throated Swift, Aeronautes saxatalis saxatalis.
6f--Cat bird--Shrike (White-rumped Shrike) Lanius ludovicianus excubitorides. Ed.
7. The good old "Spider Grandmother" has five grandsons, "The Two Little War Gods," who help the people in case of trouble, or if there is any fighting to do. They are cunning, brave and mischievous, and always go about together. Then there are Kochoilaftiyo (the Poker Boy), Pe-chinsi-vastio (the Cotton-seed Boy), and Pivitomni (Patches), which refers to the fact that his little fellow wears a robe made of mouse skins of many colors and sizes which has been fashioned for him by his Spider Grandmother.
While all these boys are supernatural beings they are considered to belong to the "common people." The last three are often called into consultation when the people need advice. They are very humble folk and therefore considered pure of heart and they bring with them the wisdom of their good Grandmother, the Spider Woman, Kokingwuuti, who is everywhere at once and is ever ready to help the Hopi. These beings are the familiar household gods of the Hopi and are regarded with a strange mixture of affection and tolerance.
The Pantheon of the Hopi might be roughly classed as follows:
Sotukeu-nangwi, the Supreme Being, or Heavenly God, who is served by all other gods.
Powerful deified heavenly bodies, such as the Sun, Tawa, etc.
Mui-aingwa, the Great Germ God of the Underworld, creator of life; and his servitors.
Masauwu, the Giant God of the Upper World, God of Fire and guardian of Death.
The Kachinas, or spirits of the ancestors and of the animals and plants.
The Ancient Monsters and the familiar household gods. Ed.
8. Spruce, Douglas Fir. Fir Pine, White Fir. Pine, Western Yellow Pine. Ed.
9. The use of the word "bamboo," coupled with the idea that it was a plant comparable with a tree, makes one feel that this origin myth has come a long way and represents a mingling of many habitats. Witness the literal translation of the words for the Bamboo Clan--Wukobacabi (meaning "a large, or larger reed"). A native bamboo grows in southern Arizona; it attains a height of 15 to 20 feet. No bamboo grows on the plateau, although there are several varieties of tall reeds and grasses called "bakabi" by the Hopi. Ed.
10. The One Horn Society is the most powerful of all Hopi sacred societies or fraternities and is regarded with great awe by the Hopi, for it is the duty of these priests to look after the dead. They are in charge of the spirit upon its journey from this world into Muski, the underworld or spirit world of the Hopi. These priests serve Muiaingwa, the Germ God, owner of the underworld, and Masauwu, God of the earth and of death. When they die, their spirits cannot return to visit the living in the form of white clouds as is the privilege of most spirits, but must forever remain in the underworld.
It is the duty of the Two Horned Society to act as guards at the Wuwuchime Ceremony, and to protect those who have become involved in trouble. E.N.
11. Masauwu, God of the earth and guardian of the dead, is very terrible and very sacred. In form he is a great giant. The Hopis say he is really a very handsome man with dark complexion, but he always wears a terrible bloody mask and an old rabbit skin robe. He walks at night and carries a fiery torch. He is the controller of fire.
Masauwu is the owner of all the Hopi world. He also represents death, for he controls the fate of the departed spirit in Muski, the underworld. The One Horned Priests serve Masauwu, as well as Muiaingwa, the Germ God, and they mete out punishment or reward, according to the life which the spirit has led in the upper world. E.N.
12. The legends of many Hopi Clans seem to indicate that the people came from the southwest and that the ocean referred to is the Gulf of California. First Mesa legends frequently refer to an ocean; in the Snake Legend, the youth descends to this ocean through the Grand Canyon. The Grand Canyon is "Muski," the place of the dead. It is thought of as a long passageway, through which a painful progress must be made by the "spirit," like the entrance through which the people came up from the underworld; in other words, a part of Sipapu, which was covered by the ocean. Ed.
13. The Sun God is Tawa He carries out the commands of Sotukeu-nangwi the Heavenly God. Mui-aingwa, the Germ God (giver of life) is controlled by the Heavenly God, but he is above Masauwu, the Earth God. E.N.
14. The legend of the Bahana, white brother, or white savior of the Hopi, is firmly established in all the villages. He came up with the people from the underworld and was accredited with great wisdom and he set out on the journey to the rising sun--promising to return with many benefits for the people. Ever since, his coming has been anticipated and it is said that when he returns there will be no more fighting and trouble and he will bring much knowledge and wisdom with him. The Spanish Priests were allowed to establish their Missions in the Hopi country because of this legend, for the people
thought that at last the Bahana had come. Since that time they have suffered many similar disappointments, but they are still expecting the arrival of the "true Bahana."
The origin of the word Bahana is unknown, though there are several theories. Today, this word is a term used to designate the coming of the Spaniards.
The belief that a powerful white Savior is expected is common to all the pueblos of New Mexico as well as those of Arizona.
The main features of this story bear a strong resemblance to the ancient legend of Quetzalcoatl, Mexican Culture-God of the Mayas and Toltecs. He is also associated with the Sun and being originally a Mayan God he did not require human sacrifice. Quetzalcoatl was the God of arts and crafts, of the calendar, and of general culture.
"There was an ancient legend that the Great Culture God, Quetzalcoatl, after instructing the people in the useful arts, departed eastward over the sea, promising to return in a year of a certain date. According to tradition, Quetzalcoatl was white skinned and bearded, and the arrival of the Spaniards in the appropriate year, led Montecuzoma II, who had been trained as a priest, to adopt a fatally hesitating policy toward them." Cortez landed in Mexico in 1519. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Vol. 5, pp. 134-135.
This belief of the Hopi in the return of a white god can be classed as one of the general "theories" of the people. The Hopi word for a "theory" is tutavo. (My Theory--i-tutavo.) Ed.
15. The legend of the Burro and the Spider Woman is probably an addition to the more ancient legend. Such legends must have developed by accretion and become considerably distorted and expanded as they were passed down by "word of mouth" from generation to generation. Many such inconsistencies occur in this story. Ed.
16. Hopi pueblos are composed of several groups of related clans. Smaller clan groups, hearing of an established pueblo and for some reason dissatisfied with their own location (perhaps because of a clan "theory" that they had not yet reached their final destination) would leave their home and journey to this larger pueblo. They would temporarily settle nearby while their chief would negotiate for admittance to the pueblo. These negotiations would sometimes occupy years, for the strangers would be requested to demonstrate that they would prove a desirable addition to the village. Some could show that they possessed potent ceremonies to produce rain or mighty warriors and could offer protection to their hosts in return for their hospitality. In this way the pueblos grew and today many interesting physical types may be observed. Ed.
17. Parrot Clan (Gash-wungwa)--These people were part Zuni. E.N.
18. This was because they were originally from Palotquopi. The Water, Cloud, and Snow Clans had separated at Homolovi, part going off to the Rio Grande country, and part on to Hopi. Later, the Rio Grande group, hearing of the others settled in the Hopi country, came over and joined Awatovi. E.N.
19. The Hopi were first visited by the Spaniards in 1540. Coronado, who had arrived in Zuni, sent a small party of soldiers under Pedro de Tobar and Fray Juan Padillo into Hopi Country. Kawaiokuh offered resistance and the town was promptly destroyed by the Spaniards.
The other villages sued for peace and never again offered resistance to the many Spanish expeditions. (Winship, p. 488; and Hammond and Rey, 1929, p. 96.) In the same year, Captain Cardenas was sent to seek the Great River of which the first expedition had been told and on the way passed through the Hopi villages where he was furnished
with guides. Cardenas was the first white man to look upon the Colorado River. (Winship, p. 488.)
In 1583 Antonio de Espejo, seeking the rich mines reported in the west and accompanied by a few soldiers and Zuni Indians, passed through the Hopi towns. He visited all the villages and when he left four Hopi guides went with his party. At this time Sikyatki was abandoned. (Hammond and Rey, 1929, pp. 94-104.)
In 1598 Juan de Oñate came to the Province of Moqui and in the name of the King of Spain received the formal submission of the Hopi Chieftains. (Bancroft, p. 139.)
In 1604-5 Oñate set out in October to seek the "South Sea." He passed through Zuni and the Hopi towns and returned again in April. (Bancroft, p. 154.) Ed.
20. Ash Hill Terrace (Kuchaptuvela) on west side, Ladder House (Kisakovi) on south side (Hargrave, 1931.) Ed.
21. The Shung-opovi Mission was called San Bartolome.
The Oraibi Mission was called San Francisco.
The Awatobi Mission was called San Bernardino.
There were two Visitas, one at Walpi, and one at Mishongnovi.
(Bancroft, pp. 173-179.) Ed.
22. A few years ago a small carved beam from the Mission could still be seen in the village of Shipaulovi. (Museum Notes, Vol. 2, No. 10.) The editor searched for it in 1933 but could not find it. It had probably been destroyed. (See also Hargrave, 1930.)
There is also a large carved beam in the Mong Kiva at Shung-opovi. Ed.
23. Jose Trujillo, a Spaniard who came to San Bartolome at Shung-opovi, from Awatobi, in 1667. He had a Visita at Mishongnovi. (Bancroft, p. 179). Ed.
24. "Pueblo uprising" August 13, 1680. Organized by Popé, an Indian from San Juan Pueblo on the Rio Grande. When the date was decided upon, swift runners carried knotted cords to all the pueblos. The Spaniards were driven out of New Mexico and did not return for ten years. (Bancroft, p. 174) Though this story does not recognize the general "Pueblo Uprising," this account evidently represents the Hopi phase of that event. Ed.
25. In 1701 Governor Cubero came with a party to the Hopi villages and killed and captured a few people. But it was deemed good policy to release the captives. The Spaniards returned without accomplishing anything. This was just 21 years after the destruction of the Missions. Nine years before, the Hopi had been visited by de Vargas, but he did not go as far as Shung-opovi. (Bancroft, p. 225.) Ed.
26. This cemetery was excavated by J. C. Owens, of the Field Museum, about 1902. It lies at the foot of the hill, about 3/4 of a mile from the Shung-opovi Day School. E.N.
27. The end of the mesa now occupied by Mishongnovi, was at that time called "Hukovi," Windy Point. E.N.
28. This might have been the expedition sent out sometime between the years 1707-1712 by Governor Jose Chacon to try to arrange for a peaceful submission of the Hopi to Spanish rule. (Bancroft, 1888, p. 229.) Ed.
29. Pikami is an exceedingly sticky mixture and often figures in legends as being used for cement. Ed.
30. Fort Defiance was established in 1852 by Colonel E. V. Sumner. (Farish, Vol. 1, p. 308.)
31. Hopi philosophy has an Oriental suggestion. The Hopi in many of his beliefs is a fatalist and believes that be and his clan are predestined to do certain things. This idea, or philosophy of life, he calls
his "theory" or Hopi-navoti. This "theory" is usually handed down to a leading man by his uncles or great uncles on the maternal side, and there is also one clan woman who tells her grandsons of this "theory." The people in general are not supposed to know of these things. During his life this man is supposed to carry forward his clan "theory" faithfully.
Each clan has its "theory" as to its final destination. Only the witches" know what will be the ultimate fate of an individual. There are also general "theories" which are held by all the people. Ed.
32. The Hopi idea of committing suicide, or "sacrificing themselves" is difficult for a white man to understand, for it is very Oriental.
If a Hopi has enemies, or there is someone who is causing him great misery, he becomes so unhappy that he wishes to destroy himself. But he cannot do away with himself without "losing face" as the Chinese say, or in other words, losing his reputation as a brave man. Therefore, he looks about for someone, or some other tribe, who may be bribed to make a sham attack upon him or upon his village during which he will be killed. It is arranged with the enemy that he will be the first to rush out against them and as soon as he is killed the enemy will promptly retreat. Of course, a few innocent people may suffer in the melee, but this seems to be regarded only as a regrettable necessity.
A man desiring to make arrangements for his suicide will meet secretly with the "enemy," taking him gifts and between them all the details of the affair will be arranged. It is agreed upon at this time that the victim shall wear all his valuables, such as strings of turquoise, etc., so that the hired assassins may thus receive the remainder of their pay from the body of the "victim." And so it is that the Hopi suicide makes a glorious end!
I am told that many of the Navajo and Ute raids upon the Hopi villages were just such pre-arranged affairs.
These two rivals were making their bargain with the Navajo, as previously described in note on suicide ( See also, Voth, pp. 255 and 258.) Ed.
33. These are the names of the men who went on the trip to Fort Defiance:
1. Masale (feathers crossed), father of the boy, Hani.
2. Tawupu (rabbit skin blanket), Masale's rival for the woman, Wupa-wuti (tall woman).
3. Tohchi (the moccasin), who ran ahead and carried the news to Walpi.
4. Mai-yaro (a bird), the man who helped Hani and became his "godfather."
5. Chihi (has reference to ear), a Navajo adopted by the Hopis.
6. Chong-o (pipe).
7. Tavaco (Spanish chewing tobacco).
8. Tamoa (hail).
The Hopis killed in the battle were: Masale, Tawupu, Chihi, and one other Hopi-adopted Navajo. The Hopis saved were: Chong-oh (pipe), Tavaco (Spanish chewing tobacco), Tamoa (hail), Tohchi and Mai-yaro.
For years it is said that the skulls of the victims of this foray were visible near the roadside between Ganado and Keams Canyon.
The relatives of Tawupu had at one time taken refuge with the Navajo during a famine and were then considered Navajo. These people, together with the relatives of the two Hopi-adopted Navajo, determined to be revenged upon the Navajo who had plotted with the two Hopi and then murdered their relatives. While the victorious Navajo were holding a dance over the scalps of the slain, these other
[paragraph continues] Navajo, the relatives of the slain, surrounded the dancers and attacked and slew them.
Edmund Nequatewa relates that in 1904 he passed along the old trail in the red hills near Ganado where the battle occurred. At that time one of the two Hopi skulls placed there to mark the boundary after the battle, was still in place on top of a small hill.
It was the custom of both Navajo and Hopi who happened to be passing on the old trail, to pause and place a daub of red paint on the skulls, as a mark of respect to the departed heroes. He said further, that the spot where the skulls rested was somewhat northeast of the boundary as claimed by the Hopi.
After a man is wounded or injured he has to choose a "godfather." The first man that finds him has to be his "godfather" and it is his duty to take charge of the injured man and nurse him back to health. First he takes him to a vacant house somewhere, where he administers first aid. Then the sick man is closed up and left alone for four days to fast. After that the godfather returns and gives the patient anew name. When this ceremony has been accomplished the injured man is at liberty to return to his home. If the patient has been bitten by a rattlesnake it is the Snake Priest who takes charge of his or her treatment. Ed.
34. An Agent was appointed for the Hopi in 1869. He lived at Fort Defiance until 1875 when buildings were erected in Keams Canyon. (Bancroft, p. 547.)
Keams Canyon was formerly called Poongo-sikia. It was named for a weed with a round leaf, used at that time for greens. This weed was called Poongo. Informant--Sich-tima of Sichomovi, husband of Edmund Nequatewa's aunt. Ed.
35. After 1875 a Missionary established a school at Keams Canyon. (Bancroft, p. 547.) Ed.
36. His name was said to be Coat, and he established the Sunlight Mission at Mishongnovi. E.N.
37. Edmund Nequatewa's grandfather, his mother's father, Peuheu (New) would take him out into the rocks and hide him. E.N.
38. Honani (badger) who was an influential man at Shung-opovi had the Shung-opovi children sent to school and the Chief of the village approved of this. Honani was called the "Bahana Mongwi" or White Chief, because he acted for the Government. E.N.
39. About 1894 the Mishongnovi chief died and Edmund Nequatewa's grandfather took his place. His name was Quoitsvintiwa and he also was a "Bahana Mongwi." E.N.
40. The High Priest would bring in their Tiponi, which represents the "mother" or "grandmother" of the race and is the most sacred emblem of a Priest. Each clan, of course, has its own Tiponi. E.N.
41. Lololama died sometime after the smallpox epidemic about 1901. Ed.
42. The Fire Clan took its name from the torch which the powerful god of the Upper World, Masauwu, carries on his rounds about the edge of the world each night. E.N.
43. Tewaquoptiwa did not wish the people from Shung-opovi to settle in Oraibi for this was not a part of his "theory." E.N.
44. It was Youkioma's "theory" that his clan originally came from Navajo Mountain and eventually, after many wanderings, were to return there, stopping first at a place below Old Oraibi, and then at Hotevilla. E.N.
45. Moenkopi had been established as a colony of Oraibi sometime previous to 1871, for at that date the Mormon church sent a missionary to live and work among the Hopi there. (McClintock, p. 157.) Ed.
46. This line, cut in the rock, may still be seen on the rocks back of the village of Oraibi. Also, close by, the following inscription:
Well it have to be this way now, that when you pass me over this LINE it will be DONE. Sept. 8, 1906.
It is said that this inscription was cut into the rock by Silena, one of Youkioma's men. The "line" must have been drawn on the rocks by Youkioma before the day of the battle. E.N.
47. The story of the founding of Hotevilla given above, is the one related in the Kiva of the One Horned Society at Shung-opovi and is the one believed by most of the Hopi. However, the true story is supposed to be as follows:
Lololama, uncle of Tewaquoptiwa, then Chief of Oraibi, was taken to Washington to see the "Great White Father." He went with a group of Chiefs and influential men from the other villages and a Tewa interpreter who also spoke Spanish. They were taken by Thomas Keam, the first trader to establish himself in Keams Canyon. This was in the early 1880's. It is known that Keam spoke Hopi and it is possible that he was a "special agent" to the Hopi at that time, as the "Agency" had not yet been established in Keams Canyon.
This group of men from the Hopi villages consisted of the following: Lololama, Chief of Oraibi; Honani, influential citizen of Shung-opovi, who also acted for Mishongnovi and Shipaulovi; Sima, Chief of Walpi and Sichomovi and over the Tewa village of Hano; and Abnawita, a Walpi man. Tom Polacca, a Tewa man, acted as interpreter for the group. When they reached Washington, they were asked to try to bring their people down off their mesas and advised to get them to spread about and form other small communities in the country nearby. At this time the Navajo were beginning to press into Hopi country and occupy their lands and it was thought that if the Hopi could be induced to spread out they could lay claim to more land and check the Navajo advance. It is not known whose idea this was, but it is unlikely that it had its origin in Washington.
Each Chief, or representative, was asked to choose sites for the proposed colonies. Lololama selected Meu-haklie, which is a place back of Monument Point in the Red Hills. He also bad Moencopi in mind, although at this time there were already gardens established there by people from various towns.
Honani selected Coma-a Springs, which is over in the Moqui Buttes, for Mishongnovi. For Shipaulovi he selected Sakapa, which lies in the cedar lands on Black Mesa, northeast of Second Mesa; and for Shung-opovi he chose Burro Springs which lies southwest of this village.
Sima selected the canyons east of First Mesa for his people, such as the canyon of Polacca Wash and those opening into it, and for the Tewa people of Hano he chose the Wepo. Now all these men promised the Government to do what they could to move their people off the mesas. When they returned to their homes they told their people what the "Great White Father" in Washington had said and urged them to move out off the mesas. But, of course, no one wished to be the first ones to start, so nothing was done about this. Some of the people were afraid, for the Navajo were already settling around them and had reached Coma-a Springs by this time.
Lololama was the only one of the party to think out a plan to move his people and he worked this out in his mind on the way home. Of course, he knew very well that just asking his people to move out
would not be enough to get them started. They would have to have some strong reason, like a quarrel or disagreement among themselves. Now Lololama knew that this was a traditional plan or "theory" among his people and that it always had worked. When the leaders found that for some reason it was desirable for their people, either the whole village, or a part thereof, to move away and found a new establishment, they would deliberately get together and plan to foment a quarrel. This would be invariably carried out in such a clever way by the leaders that the people themselves would never suspect the plot and eventually the separation or move would occur just as it had been planned.
However, after such a conspiracy these leaders always considered themselves guilty because of the trouble and distress they had brought upon their people in the process of working out a plan which was to benefit these same people eventually. They often "sacrificed" themselves deliberately, in atonement for the distress caused their people in this process and any misfortune befalling them after such an act, even though for the good of their people, was considered right and just punishment. The Hopi say that this is one of the reasons why there are so many ruins all over the country.
Now Youkioma, who was of the Fire or Masauwu Clan, lived with his people for a long time at the foot of Oraibi, while he was asking to be taken in to that village. It is his clan's "theory" that this place (Oraibi) is not their final destination, but that they still have to move on to the place from which they originally came, one of the canyons near Navajo Mountain. So Lololama picked out Youkioma because he know of his "clan theory" and this just fitted in with his plans. The two men talked over this plan and they thought that it would work out well for them both. So Lololama and Youkioma made an agreement and Youkioma was to lead his people just a little way off from the village "Just to take them a few steps away from Oraibi," as the Hopi say. Then he was to ask them whether they were really his faithful followers, or whether they were doubtful about following him wherever he might lead them. If they felt doubtful he would say that they could go back to Oraibi, or make up with the Chief there, or do whatever they wished. By doing this Youkioma thought that he would "start an argument" which would result in breaking up the people into still smaller groups. It would seem that he actually tried this.
Later Lomahungeoma and Kiwanimptiwa (whom it is believed were in the conspiracy with the two chiefs, and who were related to each other) broke away from Youkeoma's people and Lomahungioma started out to lead a group of people away to found another home. On the way, it is said, he lost his nerve (for he was thinking of the Navajo that were now pressing in around the Hopi and of what might happen to his people) so Kiwanimptiwa stepped in and took over the leadership and they finally settled at Bakabi.
Informants--Sech-tima of Sichomovi, and Lalo of Walpi. E.N.
The Hotevilla people would have become Christians if they had reached Kawish-tima, a canyon near Navajo Mountain. This right-about-face would have been considered a Hopi "joke" on Tewaquoptiwa's people.
The early missionaries must have had something to do with the idea of becoming Christians, for the hostiles were always the friends of the missionaries. The original hostile at Shipaulovi, Tawahonganiwa, promised the missionary at Toreva whoever followed him would end up as a Christian. So one of his nephews, a wise man, Steve of Toreva got the idea into his mind, "Why wait so long?" so he went back Shipaulovi and became a Christian.
One clan from Mishongnovi is still at Shung-opovi. They expected that when they reached Moenavi (Mowie-avie) that they would become Christians. Tawahunganiwa had the "theory" that his clan was to go to Moenavi.
One old man at Mishongnovi, a cripple, went to the Toreva Mission--Loman-akioma. His clan was also the one that was to go to Moenavi. This was a Snow Clan "theory." E.N.
48. Youkioma, before the break, at a meeting (meetings were held every other night) said he wanted to hold his people together. He said that he was willing for them to take their altars and emblems with them wherever they went , if they were in a bundle well wrapped up. He said, "If the fight gets too serious, drop your bundles rather than lose your life." When they dropped their bundles they were to turn over a new leaf and be converted into Christianity and give themselves up to the missionaries. If any of the other party opened a bundle they would worship it. In other words, he said if people picked them up and worshiped them, sickness and famine would fall on Oraibi. E.N.
49. There were four sons of Tawahonganiwa at Shung-opovi until recently; a silversmith, Washington Talaiumptiwa; Silas (recently deceased) ; and Rutherford. These man were all sent to Carlyle. One went to Isleta, the eldest, his name was Joshua. Later he returned to Shung-opovi. E.N.
50. Troops H and K--5th Cavalry, under command of Capt. L. R. Holbrook and First Lieutenant J. H. Lewis.
(Entries for October and November, 1906, on Returns of the Headquarters, Department of Colorado, Denver, under command of Brigadier General Constant Williams.)
(Letter of January 6, 1934, from Major E. H. Maguire, Secretary, Historical Section, Army War College, Washington, D. C.)
51. Coin Heumiventewa of Lower Oraibi contributes this portion of the story. E.N.
52. Youkioma had been in prison about 1901 because he was leader of the hostile group. Talangainiwa was Youkioma's right-hand man. He was a little comical fellow. He made fun of everybody, even the Chief. In 1906 Tewaquoptiwa was sent to Riverside again, and made more trouble when he came back. E.N.
53. All the young men sent to Carlysle were married. When they returned five years later they found that all their wives had remarried. It was a great injustice to remove these young men from their families. On their returning, they were compelled to start life over again. Their women, who were left without support, were compelled to take other men, Most of these men are living today. Ed.
54. The women and children and the very old, were deprived of all the able-bodied men for six months, over a hard winter. They built little dugouts in the sand, and brush shelters as best they could. All their men were taken away and sent either to prison or to Carlysle Indian School. It is unbelievable that the Government authorities could be so cruel. Ed.
55. The actual location of Palotquopi is extremely uncertain. The legend has been attached to Casa Grande and the ruins of the Salt and Gila valleys, and later has even been located in Mexico. Ed.
56. This same theme occurs often in Hopi literature and is used to account for the beginning of trouble in a pueblo. Ed.
59. To the Hopi all life is one--it is the same. This world where he lives is the human world and in it all the animals, birds, insects, and every living creature, as well as the trees and plants which also have life, appear only in masquerade, or in the forms in which we
ordinarily see them. But it is said that all these creatures and these living things that share the spark of life with us humans, surely have other homes where they live in human forms like ourselves. Therefore, all these living things are thought of as human and they may sometimes be seen in their own forms even on earth. If they are killed, then the soul of this creature may return to its own world which it may never leave again, but the descendants of this creature will take its place in the human world, generation after generation.
The Hopi hunter always prepares pahos, or prayer offerings, for the particular kind of game animal he is going to hunt, or for the plant clan for which he is searching. He prays, begging the animal or plant to forgive him, and explains that it is only his necessity that causes him to ask the creature to sacrifice his animal life to the Hopi. Jim Kewanwytewa.
60. In Hopi literature the "ghost" figures prominently. They usually come bringing warning of some impending catastrophe. The Ghost people must return each morning to their home in the underworld (now thought of as the Grand Canyon.) Ed.
62. The Hopi say that the Spider Woman would always make a paho that would be a little different from those made by others, therefore, she used the sumac branch. From then on pahos made for the dead are of sumac or the paho feather may be tied to a sumac bush. E.N.
63. A Hopi digging stick is a stick about a yard long and two inches in circumference, flattened and pointed at one end. It is used for planting, to make the holes in the earth in which the seeds are deposited. Ed.
65. The Water Serpent is generally referred to as Balulukong, but this particular serpent is always known as Siwiyistiwa. Balulukkong appears in many Hopi legends. (See various stories in Voth, and Stephen, 1929, No. 163.)
67. The participants in a sacred ceremony are supposed to be in a "charmed" state. After the ceremony is over they will be "discharmed" with a buzzard's feather used by a member of the Honani, or Badger Clan. Ed.
69. The brother and sister are always spoken of as Nasiwum. They are inseparable. Ed.
71. The Nasiwum, discouraged, decide to return to Sotukeunangwi, and they disappeared forever. Ed.
72. It is said that Masauwu walks all around the edge of the world every night. He carries a great flaming torch. One night some Hopi met him on his rounds and ever since then this Clan has been known as the Fire Clan. It is Masauwu's own clan. E.N.
73. The Clans from Palotquopi. The original clan at Palotquopi was the Corn Clan. This had an allied clan, the Rabbit Bush Clan. After the destruction by flood of Palotquopi this clan was re-named the Cloud Clan, and is also called the Water Clan and nicknamed the Flood Clan. The Cloud Clan eventually split into two other clans. As the people from Palotquopi were traveling northward the Chief and his two brothers decided to have a test of their wisdom to see who could bring the people the greatest benefit, so they performed their
magic ceremonies and one brother of the Chief produced snow, so from that time on this brother with his followers became known as the Snow Clan. After awhile some of these people made a settlement at Giants Chair and here again the two brothers decided to try their strength and held another test and this time it was on the crops or corn that they were to test their wisdom to see which one could produce the greatest prosperity in the way of a fine crop of corn for the people. Now, the younger brother went into his magic ceremonies and planted his corn and then he prayed for the rain to come and make it grow and the showers came and the corn began to grow and it did quite well for awhile, but pretty soon this brother could not produce any more rain and the sun was hot and the corn began to wilt. Now the oldest brother had also planted his crop and it came good and there were showers and it grew up and matured. Now from that time on the younger brother and his followers received the derisive name of the Wilted Corn Clan, whereas the older brother and his followers held the name of the Water Clan, although today they also consider themselves the Corn Clan. Therefore, the Cloud or Water Clan is considered to have two branches-the Snow Clan and the Wilted Corn Clan.
The clans that came from Palotquopi in the south are the following: Cloud, Water, or Flood Clan (Omow-wungwa) which was originally the Corn (Ka-en-wungwa) and allied Rabbit Bush (Sivaf-wungwa) Clans; the Snow (Nuva-wungwa) and Wilted Corn Clans (Pikas-wungwa) which were formed from the Cloud or Waiter Clan; the allied Tobacco (Bif-wung-wa) and Rabbit Clans; the Bamboo (Wuko-bacab-wungwa) or Reed Clan; the Sun Clan (Tawa-wungwa); the Sand Clan (Teu-wungwa); the Eagle Clan (Kwa-wungwa); and the Sun Forehead Clan (Kala-wungwa). When this last clan arrived at Shung-opovi and came to the Chief of this village to ask for admittance, he arrived at the village just as the sun was appearing over the horizon. From that time on this clan was known as the Sun Forehead Clan. It is also sometimes called the Morning Clan, or the Evening Clan, on account of the time of day when they were admitted to the village. Ed.
74. See Story of the Destruction of Palotquopi, Voth, page 48, No. 12.
Reference to the God, Sotukeunangwi, or Shotuk-inunwa, Stephen, p. 51--also on page 50, No. 19.
75. The two little War Gods are the grandsons of the good or old Spider Woman (No-okiang or Sowuti, Spider Grandmother). When the Hopi are in trouble they always turn to her or the "little fellows" for assistance and advice. They live together in a kiva near the villages.
76. The hair whorls of Hopi maidens have been misnamed squash blossoms.
77. B.A.E. 20th An. Rpt., Washington, 1903, p. X.