Truth of a Hopi by Edmund Nequatewa
On the next day at this place they started to clear out under the trees and cut out the lower limbs so they could have shade. But of course, some of those men who did not really know what this was all about argued here and there and some thought they should go back to Oraibi and make an attack on the Oraibi chief. Somehow the chief of Oraibi heard about this, but by that time the men from Moenkopi had gone back home and he knew he could not very well protect his town if they all came back. So he sent two men out, one to Moenkopi and one to Second Mesa to call for help. But, of course, all the men were out in the field by this time and it was quite late at night when these men heard about it. But anyway they thought they would go there to see if the people had come back to make this attack. When they got there all the men were at the chief's house. There he was, feeding the men on some peaches and melons which were taken from the orchards and fields of the people he had sent away. All night long some of the men were out along the edges of the mesa watching, for they did not know which way the people would come to make the attack. They had guns and what other weapons they could find.
All night long the men took turns going about the edge of the mesa, about six at the north and all at a good running distance from each other, but no enemy had shown up by daybreak so they felt quite sure they were safe.
From then on, all the mesa was pretty well guarded during both day and night and every man coming in from Hotevilla for this things was searched before he was allowed to go into the village.
During all this time the government hadn't interfered until about a month after. Of course, some of the children who had been going to school had gone to Hotevilla and when they tried to get them to go to school, trouble began again. The Hotevilla people would not let their children go back to school, saying they did not have to send the children because they had left the place from which they had been going to school. Every time when the policemen were sent all the people would come out and they could do nothing and had to go back without the children.
About the middle of October of that year, 1906, the army was sent out. They did not go clear to Hotevilla, but made camp at Lower Oraibi. About a couple of days after this they sent word to Hotevilla that they had come to see what the trouble was and if they could help them settle it, they would. Well, Chief Youkioma sent word back to the captain that he did not need his help. The trouble was already settled, but he had moved away from Oraibi. He also said he expected to live in peace, if there was going to be any.
Then the captain 50 sent word back again, asking him if he would mind telling him what had caused him to move. And again Youkioma sent word back to the captain saying he would not tell him unless Chief Tewaquoptiwa would tell him first what this was all about. 51 Then the captain sent for the Oraibi chief. Being friendly to the white man he went right down with his interpreter, and when he got there the captain asked him why he had sent those people away. He said that he had been having so much trouble with them and that they could not get along together in the same village. So the captain asked the chief why it was, and he said it was on account of their not being friendly to the white men and because they did not want to send their children to school. Before the white men had built schools, everything had been going all right. So he said that it was his fault that the trouble had begun some years ago.
The captain said that this chief should not have sent those people away. Since the white men caused the trouble it was for the white man to handle it. The chief thought that he was doing something for his friend, the white man, but he was told that it was wrong to send those people away where there was no shelter, so that he would have to bring them back or serve a term in prison. He said he did not expect to serve a term in prison, for he thought that he was doing something for the government. He told the captain that it was his "theory" that he move the hostile chief out of the village. Youkioma knew that these things were going to happen too and it had happened so. He said that if it had not been for the missionaries who interfered they would have killed each other, Tewaquoptiwa and Youkioma.
The captain said he still had a chance to kill Youkioma, but Tewaquoptiwa said it was all over now. The captain said that that was not the place where the people should settle and he said that Tewaquoptiwa still had a chance to kill Youkioma if he wanted to. He also said that the
next morning at sunrise he would give him a chance to do this. He would not let Tewaquoptiwa go home that night and all this time Tewaquoptiwa did not know that he was under arrest.
In the meantime, after nightfall, the captain sent soldiers up in the draw by Bakabi and twenty-five or thirty Navajos on police duty below Hotevilla Spring. In the meantime word was sent to Youkioma that he must be ready to be shot at sunrise the next morning. So about dawn the captain, Tewaquoptiwa, and two Hopi policemen, one Oraibi, and one Second Mesa policeman, and a guard came to Hotevilla and at the sand dune the captain gave automatics to Tewaquoptiwa and to his interpreter.
Youkioma was waiting for them on the top of a sand dune. They slowly moved up on the hostile chief who stood on the top of the sand dune, waiting for his time to come. He was all by himself, but behind the sand dune his men were hidden with all the weapons they could find. They intended to kill Tewaquoptiwa if Tewaquoptiwa killed Youkioma.
When the sun came up the captain told Tewaquoptiwa to walk up to Youkioma, but he refused to move. He was asked four times by the captain, but he was so scared that he could not talk. His jaw was shaking too fast. Since the Oraibi chief could not move the captain asked Youkioma to come over. So he came, not a bit frightened, and the captain asked him if he was ready to be shot. He said he was, for this was the sad day that would be his end. The captain asked Tewaquoptiwa if he was ready to do his duty that he was expected to do, but he would not speak. He was so weak from fright that he could hardly stand up. Then the captain asked Youkioma if he would want to take the gun away from his rival and do away with him, but Youkioma said no, that that was not his "theory". His theory was only that he would get his followers away from the old chief, to a better place. He said the Oraibi chief did not understand his "theory," and that he was all wrong. However, even if he was wrong and had always had in mind about doing away with him, he was willing to let him do it. He was willing to die for his people.
So the captain turned back to Tewaquoptiwa and asked him if he would do it now, since his rival had voluntarily given himself up and was willing to die for his people. The chief said that he would not do it because he said Youkioma must be right and that he himself had made a mistake in thinking of doing away with him. Then Tewaquoptiwa asked the captain what he would do with him if
he had killed the old man (Youkioma).
The captain said that Tewaquoptiwa was mistaken in sending the people away like that and he answered that if it was not for this "theory" he would never have done it. Then the captain asked him where he got this "theory" and he said he got it all from his great-uncles. It had been handed down for a good many years and he was chosen to carry this out. The captain said he was sorry to say that his great-uncles must have been pretty mean to have made such a theory and to give it to him to carry it out; that he had been misled and he was not doing anything right for his people or for the government. So the captain told him that this was not only a mistake but a big crime that he had done, to send the people away without anything to eat. Again he asked him if he realized how bad the situation was--that the children were crying for something to eat. Well, the chief said he did realize it then, but it was too late. But the captain said it was not too late; that the houses the people had left were still full of corn and he warned him not to interfere with any men going to Oraibi for food. Tewaquoptiwa agreed to all of this and then he asked the captain if that was all for him but the captain said no. So right there he told him that he was under arrest and that he was going to be taken away some place to serve his term in prison. Tewaquoptiwa asked the captain if he really meant it and he said yes, he had to do it. The chief turned to the captain and asked for mercy and the captain said there was nothing he could do. Then the chief cried like a child and again he asked the captain if he could spend a few days with his people. The captain said that he did not allow his prisoners to spend time with their people but they had to stay around his camp.
The chief said if he was allowed to stay with his people he would show the captain all the different ceremonies that he could perform. He said he would show the captain his most beautiful dance which his people would dance for him. The captain saw he had a chance to see these beautiful dances, so he told the chief not to spend too much time getting the dance up as his time was limited. From then on Tewaquoptiwa got his people to practice a butterfly dance.
During this time the captain returned to Youkioma. He sent for the old man. Youkioma gathered his best men and went to see the captain. When he arrived the captain asked him if he was ready to surrender and send the children to school. The chief said he was not ready for
that yet, because he was still expecting to go on to the chosen site for his new village. Again the captain asked him if he would send the children to school so that they would be well taken care of at school and then the others could go on, but Youkioma said no, that he was the father of all and he would leave none behind. The captain said that he must leave them behind if he did not surrender. The chief said that even if he had to serve another term in prison he would go on when he got out again, so the captain said he would send him back home to think it over. The chief agreed to think it over, but said he could not change his mind. When he got home that night and those that went with him broke the news to the people, that was all that they talked of that night. Some had the idea that he would surrender to the captain so as to relieve the trouble of the people.
Now in the next few days there was another division among the people. 52
After a few days Chief Youkioma was called again and all the men followed him to Kiakochomovi. The captain asked him again if he had changed his mind or decided to surrender. He said, "No." Then the captain asked all the men who came down with Youkioma if they were all with him and would they not surrender. All who were strong with the old chief were asked to step to his side. Before anybody had moved Kiwanimptiwa stepped up and said that he was ready to surrender and that there were some others that would follow him. The captain asked, "Who are they?" Chief Youkioma was put to one side and Chief Kiwanimptiwa on the other side, and the captain said, "Take your choice." Of course there was then a big argument. Some were very undecided because they did not know who was right, but most of them went over to Youkioma's side. After this was done the captain told them that all who went on Youkioma's side were under arrest and would be taken away. All that went on Kiwanimptiwa's side were to be sent back to try to make up with Tewaquoptiwa at Oraibi, so that they could return to their homes.
Youkioma's followers all stayed down at the camp and Kiwanimptiwa's followers went back to Hotevilla. When they came back, they told their families that they had shaken hands with the captain. The next day Kiwanimptiwa went back to Oraibi to see Tewaquoptiwa. When he got there he told the chief what had happened when he had visited the captain and the chief said that he would let them come back but he would like to see all the men who
had shaken hands with the captain.
That same night these men went back to Oraibi to have a council with the chief. At this council the chief told them they could come back if they would be willing to send their children to school like the rest of the people and they said they would agree to this.
In a few days they came back to Oraibi with their families and shortly after that the Butterfly Dance took place. On that day all the soldiers were up in the village to see the dance.
The next day after the dance, the police and some soldiers went to Hotevilla to get the children of school age, to send them to Keams Canyon to the school, and on that same afternoon the army broke camp and left Oraibi with their prisoners, Youkioma and his men, and the children. When they arrived at Keams Canyon the captain asked the agent to look the prisoners over and point out the men who had made trouble for him before. On looking them over he picked out Chief Youkioma first. Next was Chief Tewahonganewa of Shipaulovi and all his followers.
So the two chiefs had something like fifteen men picked out with them. Besides these, eleven men were picked out to be sent to Carlysle School (1. Archie Quamala, 2. Glen Chestiwa, 3. Andrew Humiquoptiwa, 4. Joshua Humiyistiwa, 5. Washington Tala-umptiwa, 6. Louis Tiwanima, all from Shung-opovi; 7. William Strong, 8. Albert Tawaventiwa, 9. Quoits-hoeoma, 10. Arthur Ponyaquoptiwa, 11. Tewanimptiwa, from Hotevilla.)
The two chiefs, Youkioma and Tawahonganiwa, with their fifteen followers and the boys were taken on to Fort Wingate. The rest of the men (about one hundred) were left at Keams Canyon.
From Fort Wingate these prisoners were sent to Florence penitentiary. The other eleven men, who were all married, were sent to Carlysle School. Three of the boys, Archie, Andrew, and Louis, had left their wives at Shung-opovi when they went to Oraibi. 53
When the soldiers went away, Chief Tewaquoptiwa thought that the captain had forgotten him, but when the captain arrived at Fort Wingate he wrote to him and he had to go away, either to Riverside or Phoenix. This was a month after the others had left.
About this time, Tewaquoptiwa had insulted some of the women who came back from Hotevilla and of course Kiwanimptiwa could not stand for this, so he called together all his followers, men, women, and all, about fifteen
or so families and when he got them together, he asked them how long this had been going on, and they said, ever since they had come back. They said that the chief had always said to them that if they wanted to stay in that village they had to do as the Oraibi people asked them to, whether they wanted to or not. After hearing all this from the women folk Kiwanimptiwa went and called Chief Tewaquoptiwa in and when he did bring him in he said that the women had told him what he had been doing. Tewaquoptiwa said it was not so, but the women stood right up and told him it was so and there was no use f or him to try to hide it. Then, of course, after that there was an argument. Finally, the chief told them that they did not have to stay there, but could go any place they wanted to--to Hotevilla or any place else.
They knew that after having left Hotevilla they could not go back there, so the next day, Kiwanimptiwa went out to look for a site. First he went to a spring, Meumeushva, below Hukovi. Then he came back upon the mesa and went to Bakabi. Finding that place with plenty of water and wood he decided to take his people there, so when he came back he told his people they were to move the next day.
The next morning all their burros were packed up with their stuff. (This was almost the middle of October.) When they got there, the Hotevilla people hearing of it, did not like it because after splitting away from them they were coming back to a place so near them.
Of course, this being the fall, the weather was getting cold and the best they could do was to find a little shelter along the edge of the cliff and a few of them were under the ledge. Of course in both places, Bakabi and Hotevilla, the people were busy trying to put up houses of some kind. In Hotevilla the women had to do all the work, for there were just a few old grandfathers left to help them. 54
Mr. Lemon, the agent, after hearing about this trouble again at Oraibi, came right out and sent Tewaquoptiwa to Riverside. They just keep him there and he did a little work. After sending him to Riverside School the agent went back to Hotevilla and picked out all the Shung-opovi families and sent them back to their homes.
Kiwanimptiwa thought he should have help from the government, since he had shaken hands with the captain and made friends with the white man, so he went to the agency to ask for help. When he got there he told the agent he would like him to see if he could help him out and the agent asked him in what way. The chief said he
would like some lumber for doors and windows. Well, the agent thought it was rather wise of him to call on him for help, so he ordered some ready-made doors and windows. But these windows and doors did not come until the spring, about April. Of course, at both places, the people had a hard time during the cold weather. They had built little shelter places of stone with what cedar beams they could get, and they got through the winter pretty well and not many people died. The Hotevilla people had taken some of their beans from Oraibi and with burros they had dragged them over. The women went back and forth every day and carried their doors and their metates. The Oraibi people had taken all their string-beans and jerky.
The men at Keams Canyon were set free about April. They were let out in time to plant their crops. The men sent to Florence were kept there about a year and a half. Along with these men was one man they thought was a witch, Quoitsventiwa, and he would slip out of his cell (mysteriously) once in a while. Once he got out and ran away from the prison, but they caught him again, up in the mountains. While they were there, of course, their leaders--Youkioma and Tawahonganiwa,--always would refuse to answer whenever the warden or superintendent would ask them if they were ready to surrender and be sent back home. The others were quite young, and having left their families behind they wanted to go home, and so of course they were always having trouble among themselves.
Finally, the two chiefs surrendered and were sent home, but after they came home they had a feeling that they were not respected--especially those that came from Shung-opovi.
Everything went well for about a year at Hotevilla and Shung-opovi. Then the children came home from school in the summer. At Hotevilla houses had been built by this time. When the school opened in the fall, the people, would not let the children return. The policemen went out but returned without the children. Again the army was called in. One company arrived and went to Hotevilla, caught the children, and then went on to Shung-opovi. At Shung-opovi the hostile group ref used to send their children and hid them. After that the children of the hostile group were not allowed to go home in the summer.
From then on, everything went well. The old chief at Shipaulovi, Tawahonganiwa died at Shung-opovi about 1920, and his followers all mixed with the other people. When Tawahonganiwa became hostile Sikia-litstiwa became
chief of Shipaulovi.
Later Youkioma was again arrested and taken to California because he refused to have the sheep dipped--he thought it was bad for the sheep and he thought the dipping caused the scab. He was arrested and sent to Keams Canyon. There were about fifteen men from Hotevilla, mostly sheep owners.
When his time came to be released, Mr. Daniels, the agent, called him into the office at Keams Canyon and asked him if he was ready to go back home.
The old chief said, "Yes, but I will never change my heart and the idea of making a friend of the white man. I am old now and I am not able to serve any more terms in prison. As far as my "theory" is concerned, I think that I have carried it out well for my great-uncles who gave me this theory to carry out. When I go back to my people I will ask them or my relatives if they will carry this on, but I think that they will not do as well as I have done, because they will be afraid. They will not be men enough to do it, but whoever does step in and take my place in prison I think will be Chief Tewaquoptiwa, because he will carry on and make trouble for you as he did for me, and if he ever does serve a prison term, I wish to see if he is as brave as I am and will stand as much as I have stood to this day. So I am through. From now on I hope to live in peace and die in peace." He did.
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