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Historic Maps of the Southwest

 

Waldseemüller 1507 link

Waldseemüller1507.sid (23.4MB)

Citation: Waldseemüller, Martin. Universalis Cosmographia Secundum Ptholomaei Traditionem et Americi Vespucii Alioru[m]que Lustrationes, St. Dié: M. Waldseemüller,1507

Subpage Title (Geography and Map Reading Room, Library of Congress)

"Recognizing and Naming America

Martin Waldseemüller’s 1507 world map grew out of an ambitious project in St. Dié, near Strasbourg, France, during the first decade of the sixteenth century, to document and update new geographic knowledge derived from the discoveries of the late fifteenth and the first years of the sixteenth centuries. Waldseemüller’s large world map was the most exciting product of that research effort, and included data gathered during Amerigo Vespucci’s voyages of 1501–1502 to the New World. Waldseemüller christened the new lands "America" in recognition of Vespucci ’s understanding that a new continent had been uncovered as a result of the voyages of Columbus and other explorers in the late fifteenth century. This is the only known surviving copy of the first printed edition of the map, which, it is believed, consisted of 1,000 copies.

Waldseemüller’s map supported Vespucci’s revolutionary concept by portraying the New World as a separate continent, which until then was unknown to the Europeans. It was the first map, printed or manuscript, to depict clearly a separate Western Hemisphere, with the Pacific as a separate ocean. The map represented a huge leap forward in knowledge, recognizing the newly found American landmass and forever changing the European understanding of a world divided into only three parts—Europe, Asia, and Africa."

First document known to name America.


Waldseemüller 1523 link

Tabula Terra Nova
Citation: Waldseemüller, Martin. Tabula Terra Nova. St. Dié: M. Waldseemüller, 1523.

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This map was one of two depicting the New World in Martin Waldseemüller’s edition of Claudius Ptolemy’s Geographia, originally published in 1513 in Strasbourg under the patronage of Rene II of Anjou and Lorraine. It shows Spanish, Portuguese, and English discoveries in the New World and Portuguese discoveries along the west coast of Africa to date. The New World geography of Amerigo Vespucci, also published by Waldseemüller, is an important source for this map. This woodblock impression is the first printed map of the Atlantic Basin.


Münster1550 link

Tabula Nouarum Insularum, quas Diversisi Respectibus Occidentales & Indians Uocant
Citation: Münster, S. Tabula Nouarum Insularum, quas Diversisi Respectibus Occidentales & Indians Uocant. [Amsterdam]: S. Münster, 1550.

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Münster Typus Orbis Universalis 1550 link

Typus Orbis Universalis
Citation: Münster, Sebastian. Typus Orbis Universalis. Basil: S.N., 1550.

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This map was published in 1550 by Sebastian Münster. It was a very early map showing much of the world as we know it, which is to say both the “Old World,” Europe, Asia, Africa and the “New World,” The Americas. Exploration at this time had taken place in the Americas, around Africa, and east toward India and China. This particular map was part of an atlas showing detailed maps of regions of the known world.


Gutiérrez jpg2 file (18.4MB)

Americae sive qvartae orbis partis nova et exactissima descriptio / avtore Diego Gvtiero Philippi Regis Hisp. etc. Cosmographo ; Hiero. Cock excvde 1562 ; Hieronymus Cock excude cum gratia et priuilegio 1562.

The 1562 Map of America by Diego Gutiérrez jpg2 file (18.4MB)

From the Rosenwald Collection, Library of Congress, no. 1303.


Ruscelli 1564 link

Nueva Hispania Tabula Nova
Citation: Ruscelli, G. Nueva Hispania Tabula Nova. [Venice: Ptolemy, 1564.

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Ortelius 1570 link

America Sive Novi Orbis
Citation: Ortelius, Abraham. America Sive Novi Orbis. Amsterdam: A. Ortelius, 1570.

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Sanson 1650 link

Amerique Septentrionale
Citation: Sanson, Nicholas. Amerique Septentrionale. Paris: Sanson d'Abbeville, 1650.

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A different version, not colored, in jpg2 format sanson1658.jp2 (4.7MB) http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.gmd/g3300.ct000705 American Memory Map collection

 


Coronelli 1688 link

America Settentrionale
Citation: Coronelli, Vincenzo Maria. America Settentrionale. Paris: V. Coronelli, 1688.

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Delisle 1718 link

Carte de la Louisiane et du Cours du Mississipi
Citation: Delisle, Guillaume. Carte de la Louisiane et du Cours du Mississipi. Paris: G. Delisle, 1718.

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The Delisle 1718 map is an instrument of empire, science and history. The first geographer to the King of France, Guillaume Delisle was a student of the scientist Cassine, a member of the Royal Academy of Science, and an extraordinary cartographer. He began publishing maps in 1700 and developed an analytical, scientific approach to cartography. Unlike other cartographers of the period, he insisted on documenting all details rather than relying on others’ works. His map of 1718 was one of the finest of the day and is a landmark in the history of North American and Texas cartography. The map is associated with a number of “firsts” in the history of cartography. It is believed to be the first printed map to use any form of the word “Texas”, and established it as a place name. It is the first to depict historic routes of early explorers. It is one of the first to focus on the interior of the continent. In addition, Delisle’s accuracy regarding the interior and the river systems of the upper Ohio, Missouri, and Mississippi as well as the details at the mouth of the Mississippi and Mobile Bay, made it the authority for almost a hundred years. Much of his information on the interior came directly from French explorers and fur-traders. The map also was controversial. The English were extremely angry about French North American claims to all lands west of the Appalachian Mountains. The map also deliberately reduced the English colonies on the eastern seaboard in extent and scale. Spanish claims are not acknowledged above the Rio Grande. The map was a part of the power struggle for the continent between the French, English and Spanish.


Homanns 1746 link

Regni Mexicani seu Novae Hispaniae, Ludovicianae, NAngliae, Carolinae, Virginiae, et Pensylvaniae, Necnou Insularvm Archipelagi Mexicani in America Septentrionali Accurta Tabula.
Citation: Homanns, Johannes B.. Regni Mexicani seu Novae Hispaniae, Ludovicianae, NAngliae, Carolinae, Virginiae, et Pensylvaniae, Necnou Insularvm Archipelagi Mexicani in America Septentrionali Accurta Tabula.. S. n.: J. B. Homanns, 1746.

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Haro 1770

Nuevo Santander, Mexico
Citation: Haro, Fray Joseph de. Nuevo Santander, Mexico. Mexico: , 1770.

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This is a manuscript map, that is, one drawn by hand. In contrast to printed maps, which may be made in hundreds or thousands, each manuscript map is unique, although other similar manuscript maps may be drawn as copies of the original. Although not an official map and more artistic than most, this is a fine example of the Spanish cartography of the northern borderlands of New Spain in the second half of the eighteenth century. The depiction of the new villages of Cruillas (1760), San Carlos (1760), and Villa Croix (1770) reflect the Spanish defensive reorganization of this frontier against marauding Indians (e.g. Comanche) and foreign interlopers (e.g. French). The map also can be appreciated for its artistic value, as well as its ability to convey information about how it was made: “Este Mapa comprende todas las billas y lugares de espanoles haci como las Missiones de indios y presidios existentes en la Provincia de Nuevo Santander para mejor saber de los mismos. Como lo observo y lo dibuxo por orden superior Fray Josep de Aro de la orden de San Francisco.” [ Translation: This map comprises all the villages and places of the Spaniards as well as the Missons for the Indians and the presidios existing in the province of Nuevo Santander from the best knowledge about the same. It was surveyed and drawn under the superior orders of Fray Jose de Haro of the order of Saint Francis.]


Arrowsmith 1795 link   

A map exhibiting all the new discoveries in the interior parts of North America / inscribed by permission to the honorable governor and company of the adventurers of England trading into Hudsons Bay, in testimony of their liberal communications to their most obedient and very humble servant A. Arrowsmith, hydrographer to H.R.H. the Prince of Wales, January 1st 1795 ; Puke, sc.

Arrowsmith, Aaron, 1750-1823. jpg2 (39MB)

 


Humboldt 1810 link

A Map of New Spain
Citation: Humboldt, Alexander von. A Map of New Spain. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme and Brown, 1810.

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Pike 1810 link

A Map of the Internal Provinces of New Spain…
Citation: Zebulon Montgomery, Pike. A Map of the Internal Provinces of New Spain…. Philadelphia: , 1810.

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Zebulon Montgomery Pike was twenty-seven years old when he set out on an expedition in July 1806 to explore the headwaters of the Arkansas and Red rivers. A lieutenant in the U.S. Army, Pike had been ordered on the expedition by Gen. James Wilkinson, then military governor of the Louisiana Territory. The Louisiana Territory had recently been purchased from France in 1803 but Spain disputed U.S. president Thomas Jefferson’s belief that the western boundary of the newly purchased land was the Rio Grande. To enable the U.S. to have a better understanding of the western and southwestern part of the Louisiana purchase Pike and party left St. Louis, Missouri Territory, in the summer of 1806. They proceeded overland to the Arkansas River, where a small party under Gen. Wilkinson’s son, Lt. James Wilkinson, was dispatched to follow the river to its mouth. Pike and the remains of the party continued up the Arkansas River to the vicinity of present day Pueblo, Colorado, and the mountains that now bears his name (Pike Peak). There they moved west to the Rio Grande, where they were captured by Spanish troops and escorted south into Chihuahua, a town in New Spain. In Chihuahua, Pike was quartered with Juan Pedro Walker, a Louisiana born engineer in the Spanish Army. Pike’s papers were confiscated, and he and his men eventually were marched east across Texas by way of the Old San Antonio Road to Natchitoches apart of the U.S. In 1810 Pike published an account of his adventures entitled An Account of Expeditions to the Source of the Mississippi and Through the Western Parts of Louisiana, to the sources of the Arkansas, Kans, La Platte, and Pierre Juan Rivers. Philadelphia: C. & A. Conrad & Co., 1810. This map was one of the several included in his book.

Pike’s map actually created something of a stir upon publication, when Baron Alexander von Humboldt claimed publicly that Pike’s map was a direct copy of a draft of his own map that he had left in Washington, D.C., in 1804. There is little doubt that Pike had been given access to Humboldt’s manuscript map, and that it likely influenced Pike’s map to some extent. However, Pike’s map is not an exact copy. In fact, when comparing the depiction of Texas on both maps, there are many differences, including the drawing of the coastline, the course of the rivers, and the location of Spanish settlements. Overall, Pike’s depiction of Texas is more accurate than Humboldt’s, no doubt a result of Pike’s firsthand observations and information he had gained from Juan Pedro Walker. Pike’s book and map, published four years before the journal of Lewis and Clark, gave the American public its first glimpse of the land west of the Mississippi River.


Humboldt 1811 link

Carte du Mexique et des Pays Limitropher Situres ou Nort et E'est
Citation: Humboldt, Alexander von. Carte du Mexique et des Pays Limitropher Situres ou Nort et E'est. Paris: F. Schoell, 1811.

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Mitchell 1847 link

Citation: Mitchell, S. A. Map of Mexico Including Yucatan & Upper California Exhibiting…. Philadelphia: Mitchell, S. A., 1847.

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Disturnell 1846 link

Mapa de los Estados Unidos de Mejico

Citation: Disturnell, J. Mapa de los Estados Unidos de Mejico. Nueva York: L. Publican J. Disturnell, 1846.

Bibliographic reference: Martin, James C. and Robert Sidney Martin. Maps of Texas and the Southwest, 1513-1900. Hong Kong: Texas State Historical Association, 1999. Page[s] 137-139.

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Lizars 1833 link

 

Mexico & Guatimala
Citation: Lizars, Daniel. Mexico & Guatimala. Edinburgh: D. Hamilton, successor to D. Lizars, 1833.

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This map, Mexico & Guatimala, prepared by Daniel Lizars, depicts Spanish held Mexico and Central America just prior to the Mexican independence movement. The map clearly shows in outline the borders of the U.S., including those agreed on with Spain in 1819 in the Adam-Onís Treaty. The map focuses on Mexico and Guatimala and the Spanish settlements in these regions. Ther Lizars, being a loyal British subject, included, the “British Territory” known as Belize today. The map also depicts geographically the various intendencias in the region. As far as Texas is concerned, the map shows settlements at Nacogdoches in the east, San Antonio in central Texas, and “Loredo” in the south.


Colton 1873 link

CB Colton Arizona and New Mexico 1873 jpg2 file http://www2.nau.edu/~libei-p/scadb/recdisplay.cfm?control_num=1440

 

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