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Southwestern Timeline

Cultural History

 

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The Pecos Classification is an early Southwestern cultural-temporal framework which emerged from the Pecos Conference of 1927 (Kidder 1927). This classification is based principally on changes in architecture, pottery and and other forms of material culture.

The Pecos Classification is largely applicable only to parts of the Anasazi culture area - not the whole Southwest. Some changes have been made to the original definitions but the the Pecos Classification still forms the basis of chronological division for the Anasazi culture.

 

 

Timeline

 
Culture Area
     
Date
Navajo Reservoir
San Juan Basin
Rio Grande/Jemez
Gallina
Pecos   Ceramic Assemblage
(dominant types)
Architecture Other events
1863-present Reservation Navajo Reservation Navajo US Territorial   PV        
1770-1863 Cabezon Cabezon Mexican/Santa Fe Trail Cabezon PV        
1650s-1770 Gobernador Gobernador Post Pueblo Revolt Gobernador PV   Gobernador Polychrome    
1540-1650s Dinétah Dinétah Pueblo Revolt
Contact Colonial
Dinétah PIV   Dinétah Gray    
1400-1540     Classic Pueblo IV   PIV        
1100-1400 PIII McElmo/Mesa Verde PIII Coalition Pueblo III Largo-Gallina Late PIII
1200-1300
Mesa Verde Mesa Verde B/w, indented corrugated (rock & sherd)   Major re-population
PIII
1140-1200
McElmo McElmo, indented corrugated (rock/sherd/sand)   Major depopulation/severe drought
900-1100 Arboles PII Bonito PII Late Developmental Pueblo II   Early PIII
1090-1140
Late Bonito Chaco-McElmo/Gallup B/w, indented corrugated (sand) Major greathouse constr. north of San Juan River Major population increase, then decrease
Late PII
1040-1100
Classic Bonito Gallup B/w, indented corrugated (sand & trachyte) Major greathouse constr. Major depopulation. Varied climate: drought, major surplus
PII
1000-1100
Early/Classic Bonito   Kivas appear  
Early PII
900-1040
Early Bonito Red Mesa B/w, narrow neckbanded (sand). Small-house aggregation & sharp number increase. Greathouses appear in numbers in San Juan Basin Major population rise, rise of turquoise industry/crafts, corn ubiquitous in sites. Water control systems appear.
700-900 Rosa Piedra PI White Mound PI Early Developmental Pueblo I   Late PI
875-925
Early Bonito Kiatuthlanna & Red Mesa B/w, Lino Gray & Kana'a Neckbanded Above ground slab house sites; small to moderate size? Shift from dry to wet period.
PI
800-875
White Mound Whitemound B/w, Lino Gray Classic above ground slab row house sites; small to moderate size.1st greathouses appear. Major increase in storage facilities
Early PI
700-800
White Mound Whitemound B/w, Lino Gray Deep pithouses, dispersed. Sparse storage facilities?
500-700 Sambrito BM III La Plata BM III Alameda BM III   Late BMIII
600-700
La Plata La Plata B/w, Lino & Obelisk Grays Shallow pithouses, dispersed. Moderate storage facilities (surface cists)
BMIII
500-600
La Plata La Plata B/w, Lino & Obelisk Grays Shallow pithouses. Two aggregated great communities with great kivas appear. Moderate storage facilities (surface cists)
100-500 Los Pino BM II Basketmaker II Rio Rancho BM II   Late BMII
400-500
brownware Obelisk Gray & brownware Unknown. Unknown.
BMII        
BC800-AD100 En Medio En Medio              
1800-800 Armijo Armijo              
3200-1800 San Jose San Jose              
4800-3200 Bajada Bajada              
5500-4800 Jay Jay              
10000-5500 Paleo Paleo Paleo Paleo          

 

With the coining of the Hohokam name for the culture of southern Arizona, Winifred and Harold Gladwin proposed a new system in 1934 (Gladwin and Gladwin 1934). The Gladwins named the Hohokam periods Colonial, Sedentary, Classic, Recent, and Modern.

Archaeological activity in the 1930s brought to light another major regional culture - -the Mogollon (Gladwin and Gladwin 1935; Haury 1936) which shared its origins with the Hohokam.

A fourth major subculture - Hakataya or Patayan is included in the chart below. This designation brings together several groups which occupied common areas of the Southwest and descended from common ancestors. Hakatayan cultural divisions are less well-defined than those of the other Southwestern peoples.

The chart above reflects the idea that the San Jose tradition continued on as the Anasazi and that the Cochise people continued on as the Hohokam and Mogollon; this progression is debatable.

 

 

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